Tag Archives: Lions

Panasonic GH5 – A wildlife filmmaker’s dream?

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Hello everyone! It’s been a while since I wrote a single word on this blog as these past 6 months have been hectic- editing away for A Lion’s Tale, doing work experience on the One Show, BBC Wildcats, attending Wildscreen – and recently my own film premiere at the Everyman theatre! Now I’m officially a graduate MA Wildlife Filmmaker; time has flown and can’t actually believe the course is over now. I also managed to get some very exciting work at the BBC as a researcher for NHU digital, on Planet Earth II and Oceans digital projects – a dream come true (!) So much can happen in the space of a few weeks, Bristol is such an incredible city full of passionate creatives…

More of that later, but today I’m here to share my experience with the greatly anticipated Panasonic GH5, which has NOW been released today...

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At the beggning of February I got the amazing opportunity to try out the pre production GH5 model, which I was especially excited about. I had been reading different hybrid mirrorless camera specs, including the GH4 and A7S II. But the I came across the GH5; and if I could write a specs list as a wildlife photographer and filmmaker – this camera would tick them all! And whilst there are many of you out there shooting incredible films with FS7’s or RED One’s, this article is targeted towards those with much smaller budgets and the need to travelling light. I principally wanted my choice of camera to provide me with all the features that allow me to have stabilized, sharp images, 4K at 10 bit, variable frame rates to shoot in high speed and capture high quality,blue-chip style footage… and here it was! Not to mention the improved low light performance and compact body…

Here’s the tech specs for you to drool over:

Technical Specifications

  • 20.3MP Digital Live MOS Sensor
  • Venus Engine Image Processor
  • UHD 4K 60p Video with No Crop!
  • Internal 4:2:2 10-Bit 4K Video at 24/30p
  • 4:2:2 10-bit (DCI and UHD up to 30p + HD 60p) Firmware update summer/April
  • 400mbps All-intra (DCI and UHD up to 30p) Firmware update summer/April
  • Variable frame rate (up to 180fps in 1080p HD: )
  • 5-Axis Sensor Stabilization; Dual I.S. 2
  • 0.76x 3.68m-Dot OLED Viewfinder
  • 3.2″ 1.62m-Dot Free-Angle Touchscreen
  • Advanced DFD AF System; 6K & 4K PHOTO
  • ISO 25600 and 12 fps Continuous Shooting
  • Dual UHS-II SD card Slots;
  • Wi-Fi & Bluetooth
  • Improved low light
  • Hybrid Log Gamma (for HDR video)
  • Waveform and Vector monitors (for all you graders out there!)
  • Price:  £1699.00 (body only, UK)

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Sample shots

So enough of me gabbling on; here are some stills I took at Bristol Zoo and around the city, using the 100-400mm f/4-6.3 and  the 15mm Summilux  f1.7  Leica lenses:

duckDucks galore. 1/650 sec, f/6.3 with the 400mm Leica lens. 6K stills mode.

lions_edited_black_bkg4_curve_balanceLions lair. Shot handheld through a fence 1/650 sec, f/6.3, ISO 1600 with the 400mm Leica lens. Cloudy/dark conditions so had to increase the ISO as the min aperture was 4.

lion_ss_1400mm Leica lens at 1/400 sec, f/6.3, 1600 ISO, manual

fur_seal400mm Leica lens at 1/320 sec, f/4, 400 ISO, 6K stills mode.

fur_seal_MCU400mm Leica lens at 1/320 sec, f/6.3, 400 ISO, manual

red_panda400mm Leica lens at 1/1000 sec, f/4.2, 1600 ISO, 6K stills

red_panda_2400mm Leica lens at 1/1000 sec, f/4.0, 1600 ISO, 6K stills

penguin215mm Leica lens at 1/500 sec, f/1.8, 200 ISO, manual

flamingo2.1400mm Leica lens at 1/1000 sec, f/4.2, 1600 ISO, 6K stills

And now for cities!

test415mm Leica lens at 1/1020 sec, f/1.8, 200 ISO, manual

tes2sunrisemist15mm Leica lens at 1/3200 sec, f/1.7, 200 ISO, manual

boats_harbourside15mm Leica lens at 0.6 sec, f/1.7, 200 ISO, manualcranes_bristol

boats_towards_city15mm Leica lens at 0.6 sec, f/1.7, 200 ISO, manualcathedral CU15mm Leica lens at 0.5 sec, f/1.7, 200 ISO, manualtower15mm Leica lens at 0.5 sec, f/1.7, 200 ISO, manual

So here’s my short little summary breakdown of the pros and cons (so far):

Pros

  • Incredible image quality. Both stills and video
  • Sharp 
  • Fast focus, cont focus very good with fast moving subjects (with a whopping 225 autofocus points compared to the GH4 which had just 49 of them!)
  • Dual IS was brilliant; everything was shot handheld!
  • Colours were vivid and realistic
  • Variety of functions and control
  • Viewfinder superb contrast and easy to use in combination with the screen
  • Screen: incredible quality and sensitive to touch screen capabilities
  • Solid feel, nice grip
  • Sound stereo actually good
  • 6K photo function
  • Ability to stabilise on a drone and shoot 4k 60fps
  • Price: Nearly $1500 cheaper than the A7S Ii, you can afford to splash out on a decent lens and not struggle
  • Compact: You get through customs without questions, as a ‘tourist’ and not draw attention with a large FS7 or FS700 without compromising on quality…
  • You can use this on a Movi for additional stabilisation
  • Ability to attach mics – interface with Panasonic’s optional hot-shoe powered DMW-XLR1 microphone adapter (for amazing sounding interviews!)

Cons

  • High speed grain. Quite noisy at 180fps, better at 120 when light conditions were good. An try and avoid using 1080 120 100mbps with a telephoto lens (if you’re using the 15mm 1.7 you’ll be fine as this is a nice wide, fast lens that gives you plenty of light).
  • 100-400mm manual focus not as smooth or intuitive as some of the Canon L glass (but you can get a speedbooster and mount for your Canon lenses)
  • Battery life; constant 4K shooting 3 hours and 15 minutes. Not mega efficient! But can get 2 and lasts longer than A7S.
  • Poorer performance at 3200 in low light, not good in darker conditions with telephoto, but superb with the 15

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What next?

Well, there’s a few things that I personally want to film with this revelatory new piece of camera technology. Exquisitely designed in terms of ergonomics and with the operator in mind – this is certainly one to watch for indie wildlife filmmakers who not only want to shoot stunning stills, but also enter film festivals by shooting short films – all within budget. (Then you’ve got more to cash to splash on going out on location to exciting places!)

More soon with video footage samples in 4K and variable frame rates, as well as a more extensive guide on what each of the features allows you to do – but in the meantime, get down to your local camera store and try it out!

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ps: Me playing with a Ronin! And soon Gh5…..

A Lion’s Tale

As many of you know, I have been off filming in Kenya as part of my final Master’s film for the UWE Bristol-BBC course. Here is a little more background to the story before I start blogging the exciting events that happened during the trip!

Please check out more about the FILM here:

https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/a-lion-s-tale/x/11469504#/

 

Synopsis

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2016 is The Year of the Lion that will honour the 50th anniversary of the film Born Free. A story of true determination, passion, love and drama – it is one of the most successful conservation stories ever told all. This film will be presented by Virginia McKenna, the actress turned wildlife activist as she tells us about her journey to protect the lions of East Africa and introduces us to the team of rangers currently working in Elsa’s heartland, Meru National Park. Led by Virginia’s son, Will Travers and the charismatic Victor Mutumah (Game warden of the Kenya Wildlife Service), we see first-hand how the threat to lions has never been so pressing.

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Wildlife activist Virginia McKenna; actress turn conservationist
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Meet Victor Mutumah: chef extraordinaire and wildlife conservationist or Born Free.
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OBE Will Travers: son of Virginia and Wildlife activist, president of the Born Free Foundation. Shown here at the major Ivory Burn event we attended.

Why now?

Their numbers have declined by 90% since the making of the film, and the recent lion census has revealed that in Meru poisoning, snaring and hunting is threatening the last remaining populations of the original lions raised by George Adamson. As the team search for answers across the dramatic landscape, it ultimately leads them to the local Borana people whose livelihoods are equally at risk from these majestic predators.

Without urgent action, lions could become extinct into the wild within our life time- as currently there are less lions than rhino in the wild

Lions vulnerable

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Can the team help convince the new generation of children of the value of lion? Will they change from hunters to conservationists? Will Virginia’s lion legacy be felt in the true heartland where it matters most?

Where?

Our documentary will take place in the heartland of the Born Free story, in the little visited and utterly unspoilt Meru National Park where the Adamson’s released Elsa the lioness into the wild. Steeped in history, few places are comparable to the remote and rugged atmosphere found here with a vast range of habitats, criss-crossed with 13 natural rivers. From the majestic lion and the minute naked mole rat – it truly is a landscape of contrasts.

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Virginia McKenna

Despite being at the peak of her career, the film and all it still stands for changed her life…It’s powerful message stayed with her after the film and so she gave up Hollywood and began a lifetime of campaigning across the world to save animals from commercial exploitation, imprisonment, cruelty and the loss of their natural habitat-focusing relentlessly on her personal mission with the Born Free Foundation.

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The Story

In the beginning we meet Virginia McKenna, actress turn conservationist as she introduces us to the Born Free film she was involved with, and shares the impact it had on her. Through a series of interviews and cut aways to archive of the Born Free Film, we gain an insight into why lions are important to her, her relationship with them and what the Foundation is doing as part of their campaign to halter their startling decline….

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We then journey to the homeland of Elsa the lioness and the heartland of Joy Adamson- Meru National Park. Virginia’s voice guides us though a remarkable raw landscape in the foothills of Mt Kenya with its herds of zebra and elephants, home to the descendants of the original lions from the film. Here we meet Victor Mutumah of the Born Free Foundation and the rangers who fight tirelessly against poachers and bandits.

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The reality of what’s causing the lions decline is revealed in the field as the rangers track down snares and traps.However the main cause is shown as human populations encroach further into lion territory this often leads to human-wildlife conflicts and a fragile relationship between lions and locals. Is conservation on the agenda amongst the local people? An interview with a local farmer from the Meru tribe gives us an insight into where this stems from, and what is really thought about conservation.

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What does Born Free and the KWS need to do to change their views in on one of the last strongholds of lions in Kenya before its too late?

Born Free and the KWS attempt resolve this conflict by reaching out towards the community and giving them the tools to become conservationists. With the Global friend’s programme, they educate the next generation of lion guardians about the value of lions to their culture and livelihoods. By focusing on environmental education and benefits to human communities; Global Friends encourages communities to find their own solutions to human-wildlife conflict… As well as this, de-snaring operations and research are helping to reduce conflict and enable a better understanding of the last remaining individuals in the park. However the threats are very real to the rangers, who need to protect themselves as well as the lions they so dearly care about.

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On the final leg of the journey, we meet Virginia’s son, Will Travers as he journeys to the Ivory Burn in Nairobi National Park; the largest in history, and a symbol of hope to tackle the ever increasing rise in the illegal ivory trade and of all of Kenya’s species.

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But will this be enough to change people’s relationship between lions to a positive one? Is there hope for the future of Kenya’s lions?

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The Impact

On completion of this film, it will be screened at the BBC Natural History Unit this September 2016, a day of great celebration for everyone involved in the project and YOU at home for making it a reality. Then it’s off to the Film Festivals around the world! Virginia’s Lions could have an impact on raising awareness about the plight of lions and encourage protection from commercial trade at the 17th COP convening with CITES in Johannesburg, South Africa.

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The Born Free Foundation since its creation in 1984 originally with Zoo Check, it has raised over millions and grown into a global force for protecting and rescuing wildlife. It is working harder than ever with local communities to give them right conservation tool, with its personal passion for wild animals and desire for positive change remaining at the heart of the foundation.

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Resolution?

Virginia’s message of hope is an inspiration to us all, and something which all humans share. I hope to raise awareness about the plight of lions through my film, but also celebrate the story of Virginia McKenna and the Born Free Film which changed her life. This story is unique in that Virginia is not a scientist, nor a local Kenyan…but someone who has a deep passion and connection to the place and the wildlife around her. We will ultimately decide the fate of lions, and so let us chose hope and rally with Born Free to ensure the next generations will see this remarkable iconic species in the wild for themselves.

Photo credit: The amazingly talented Robyn Gianni took these photographs and is allow me to use them for the film! Check out her incredible work here:

 

Trailer: https://vimeo.com/163647394

 

Virginia McKenna: Meeting my heroine

I was 10 years old when I stood up in front my my somewhat small class of 8 students in Southern Spain to talk about my heroine and great inspiration in life…Virginia McKenna. Having seen the Born Free film, and found out about the astounding efforts of the actress turn conservationist I felt compelled to learn more about this beautiful, spirited and passionate individual. 11 years later, little did I know that I would be producing a film about the plight of lions and my heroine for the Born Free Foundation! It truly is a dream come true and I am incredibly excited to share this with you all. I am certain you’ve all loved watching the Born Free, a story of true determination, passion, love and drama –  and one of the most successful conservation stories ever told all. Lion’s need our help more than ever, and this is why I want to share this story now

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After several trips to the car with various tripods, c-mounts, pro mic kits, radio mics, cameras, lenses, lights, gaffa tape, XLR cables, mixer… we set off! Virginia lives in a most beautiful part of the country, Surrey. The skies were clear and a deep azure, you could even see the reminiscent red silhouettes of the Red Kites as they soared with the thermals over the A4. Trails of happy holiday goers could also be seen with white airplane clouds trailing behind. I was reading over my questions with great excitement, I could not believe I was about to meet my childhood heroine.. she had been part of my early life through television, books and of course podcasts and audio books where her powerful words would inspire me to write, and read poetry about wildlife.

We were let into one of the most beautiful houses I’ve ever seen by her incredibly passionate son Will Travers (president of the Born Free Foundation). He looked remarkably like her, with those dazzling blue eyes and handsome face. Down the bluebell woods which were dappled with a soft spring light, under the trees that whispered in the wind…and into Will’s gorgeous home to set up the kit. Gosh has he travelled. Adorned with relics from every country, the place had such a welcoming and warm feeling. The garden was such a retreat, with its quiet still and calmness– the birds and bees clearly sought refuge in this little piece of Surrey serenity.

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After discussing plans with Will about the trip itself and the interview, we met Virginia who had come up from her house.. I must say my heart was pounding! She was even more beautiful in real life and her voice so welcoming. We sat down and began the interview after setting the sound and framing with the cameras. From descriptions of the intense pulse of Africa, her Born Free role, her brilliant husband… to the future of Africa’s lions…to me there is something more remarkable than this woman’s countless number of achievements over the past 50 years. More than her bravery in changing her entire career path onto one of conservation, more than establishing one of the most successful animal charities in the world, more than helping thousands of individual animals and people through her hard work and determination.. it is her sense of hope and light that emanates from her. You not only see it but feel every word she says with such verve and passion that it truly resonates with you. I’ve conduced many interviews before but never felt so moved and inspired afterwards- her ability to listen is something that I believe has allowed her to help change the lives of so many.

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After the interview we chatted more about her love for Meru National Park, and I mentioned that I would be thrilled if I saw a naked mole rat (don’t ask me why but its something about their incredible evolutionary strategy which rather excites me..!), and she jumped in delight for my love of them, she was also a lover of all creatures small and mighty. We filmed a few cut aways of her in her garden and sauntered through to her stunning section of the house. Through the pathway an amazing view caught us by surprise, “That’s where Christian the lion use to stay when we helped keep him for Ace and John..” I had to restrain myself from squealing with excitement- CHRISTIAN THE LION! The famous lion from the YouTube video where he remembered his old owners in a fond and loving embrace. And then further down the garden was the most resplendent carving of a lion you’ve ever seen! By a very talented welsh chainsaw artist…the eyes were soft in contrast to the sharp, crisp details of his lustrous mane. Along his back perched a small butterfly; what could be more iconic as a sign of hope…Virginia’s very own butterfly lion although I am told he is called the Lion Guardian.

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After visiting her beautiful home, we thanked each other after an embrace and wished each other the best of luck on each of our journeys. This was the most incredible day of my life! There is always that fear at the back f your mind that one of your heroes, should you be so fortunate as to meet them, might not like you, think you’re somewhat annoying or downright  boring…but Virginia’s warmth and compassion came through and I felt so welcomed by both her and Will. I now see that this is their haven to retreat to after all the suffering they see with the animals they fight so hard to save. They are different to any other charity I’ve seen. They truly believe in what they do and care about every individual, and I feel greatly honoured to be starting my journey with them next week as I travel to Kenya, Meru National park- the original heartland of where George and Joy Adamson released Elsa the Lioness into the wild. It’s remarkable to think that now in 2016, the Year of the Lion and the 50th Anniversary of the Film, that the Foundation they set up is still going strong and making such a difference- keep up the hard work! And last week Virginia was awarded the Inspiring Lives Award in San Francisco- she couldn’t be more deserving.

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By Born Free Foundation. Virginia and her son Will by Elsa’s grave, Meru National Park.

Please help support their work, and also please check out my IndieGoGo site for A Lion’s Tale (https://igg.me/at/alionstale/x/11469504) for more details, and I’m giving $1000 to Born Free if we can reach our target; thank you! More to come soon about the story and film I’m making for my MA Wildlife Filmmaking course (Bristol BBC NHU) as I travel with my camera assistant Adrian to Nairobi, but for now, asante sana and Hakuna matata!

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Photography by the incredible Robyn Gianni, check out her work and where you can get her prints! http://www.robyngianni.org/

 

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Loss of Apex Predators

News & Views

Loss of Apex Predators in Dual-Apex Systems

By Tania Esteban, Samuel Ross, Jessica Rushall, & Louise Shuttleworth

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Apex predators are in global decline. The description of possible complex interactions between apices in dual-apex systems calls for further research.

Apex predators occupy the highest trophic level of an ecosystem, thus do not have natural predators themselves. They are capable of affecting ecosystem functioning through consumer-control and strong trophic interactions. There are currently unknown interactions between apex predators and mega-herbivores in systems where both are present. Because of this, the loss of apex predators from a ‘dual-apex system’ could affect communities in a highly complex manner. The decline of apex predators should be considered in systems with both mega-herbivores and apex predators. Tambling et al., (2013) explored this concept in an African ecosystem where lions (apex predators) and elephants (mega-herbivores) co-exist. In this article we discuss the potential effects of apex predator loss in this ecosystem.

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Mega-herbivores perform important functional roles in ecosystems. For example, elephants alter plant community architecture through trampling and overgrazing1. Direct aggressive interactions between elephants and other animal species also occur in these systems2, highlighting the key role of mega-herbivores in influencing species dynamics. Elephants also have indirect impacts on other herbivores through exploitation competition over resources, and depending  on the  system,  are sometimes able to outcompete smaller herbivores1.

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Figure 1. Weighted trophic interactions between species in the presence of apex predators: (a) with; and (b) without mega-herbivores. Interaction strengths are depicted by line thickness.

Lions are important apex predators in African ecosystems. They exert consumer-control, through predation on small and medium/large sized ungulate species, such as duiker and kudu respectively1. Like elephants, lions are classed as a flagship species because they are globally renowned, captivating, and of conservation concern. Lions are classed as vulnerable3, and are in decline because of hunting and persecution; diseases including CDV; and habitat loss due to agriculture and urbanisation4. If lion numbers continue to fall, large detrimental impacts on these ecosystems might be seen.

In multiple apex systems, interactions between apices are likely. Despite a lack of literature on the topic, there are potentially undescribed interactions between species occupying these apex roles.

Apex predators are likely to interact indirectly with other ‘apex consumers’ including mega-herbivores5. One of these indirect interactions can be facilitation by one apex on another; for example facilitation of predatory success of apex predators by mega-herbivores through environmental modification1. Another of these indirect interactions between apices would be the loss of one apex from the system. It is widely recognised that the loss of consumer-control has widespread effects, with the impacts of this loss propagating through the ecosystem. On a larger scale, trophic downgrading is a global threat, as systems are driven towards simplicity when consumer-control by apex predators is lost5.

In an African thicket ecosystem, Tambling et al., (2013) studied the interaction between lions (apex predators) and elephants (mega-herbivores). In this system elephants facilitate predatory success of lions through overgrazing and trampling of dense thicket vegetation. This allows access into the dense vegetation, which lions utilize because they are sit-and-wait predators. Lions will preferentially select for foraging habitats that maximise cover, over abundance or value of prey6. Therefore, modification by elephants facilitates an increase in encounter rates between lions and their smaller ungulate prey, as these  species predominantly inhabit this thicket vegetation1. In the absence of mega-herbivore facilitation, lions predominantly feed on larger prey species, as they do not have access into the dense thicket vegetation in which the smaller species reside [see figure 1].

As briefly discussed by Tambling et al., (2013), loss of apex predators in these systems could lead to multi-directional trophic cascades. Compared to unidirectional trophic cascades, impacts of predator loss can radiate through the system in a nonlinear manner. For example, apex loss could propagate down through trophic levels and ‘rebound’ back up towards the second apex (mega-herbivore) through changes in populations of smaller herbivores.

In a classic trophic cascade, apex predator loss results in increases in herbivore populations7. The extent of population responses to predatory release depends on ecosystem structure. In the African thicket ecosystem where mega-herbivores facilitate lion predatory success on small ungulates, if lions were lost from this system, the resulting population changes of small herbivores would be greater than in the absence of facilitation by elephants. Where elephants are not present, lions mostly cannot access small prey species that frequent dense thicket vegetation so they predominantly prey on larger ungulate species1, resulting in greater proportional population increases in larger ungulates if predatory release were to occur.

Following the exploitation ecosystem hypothesis, if consumer-control is lost, systems are limited purely by primary productivity so the extent of primary production determines trophic complexity8. If lions were lost from a dual-apex system, the ‘second apex’ would likely be affected, as mega-herbivores would face increased competition due to predatory release of other herbivores [See Fig. 2a]. Systems that support mega-herbivores face increased herbivory initially, so when apex predators in these ecosystems are lost, mega-herbivore populations are at greatest risk of collapse due to competitive exclusion of these species with low rates of secondary production9.

Although Tambling et al. (2013) studied facilitation in dual-apex systems, as far as we are aware there is no current research into the effects of apex predator loss in these ecosystems. The African thicket ecosystem should be used as a model for future studies into dual-apex interactions, as exploration of connections in this novel system was valuable. As briefly  outlined, complex multi-directional trophic cascades have not been widely recognised and described. If we are to gain valuable insight into the impacts of apex predator loss, we must research this area further, in different dual-apex systems, as currently little is known about the consequences of apex predator declines. Equally, the role of consumer control in structuring ecosystems is not widely recognised5. This further highlights the need to consider the effects of apex predator loss in ecosystems globally, and the importance of preserving all types of apex consumers in an increasingly downgraded world.

References

  1. Tambling CJ et al. (2013) Basic and Applied Ecology 14, 694-701.
  2. Slotow R, & van Dyk G. (2001) Koedoe 44, 85-94.
  3. Bauer H et al. (2012) Panthera leo: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (available at www.iucnredlist.org). Updated 2014 (Accessed 01 December 2014).
  4. Snyman A et al. (2014) Oryx, 1-7.
  5. Estes JA et al. (2011) Science 333, 301-306.
  6. Hopcraft JGC et al. (2005) Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 559–566
  7. Pace ML et al. (1999) Trends in ecology & evolution 14, 483-488.Oksanen L, & Oksanen T. (2000) The American Naturalist 155, 703-723